Sadaqah al-Fitr is a Wâjib (required) charity which is given by Muslims who have Nisâb (80.18 gr gold or its equivalent) amount of wealth after providing for his basic necessities and who have reached the end of Ramadân al-Sharîf. It is also Wâjib upon those who fail to fast in Ramadân al-Sharîf because of sickness, travelling in Ramadân al-Sharîf or old age.
Sadaqah al-Fitr is a Wâjib which is established by Mashhur Ahadîth. It became Wâjib in the year fasting was prescribed, before Zakâh was prescribed.
It is a means for the acceptance of fast, and it provides safety from the pangs and pains of death and torments of the grave. In addition, it helps provide for the necessities of the poor so that they enjoy Eid.
Sadaqah al-Fitr becomes Wâjib as the time of Fajr Salâh begins on the first day of Shawwâl. However, it is Mandub (praiseworthy) to give it earlier so that the poor can meet their necessities with it before the Eid Salâh.
Since Sadaqah al-Fitr becomes Wâjib at Imsâk time on the first day of Shawwâl, if a child is born before Imsâk that day, it becomes Wâjib to give Sadaqah al-Fitr for that child as well. Nevertheless, if the child is born after that time, it is not Wâjib.
Each adult Muslim should pay the Sadaqah al-Fitr for themselves and for their poor children who are not Bâligh (mature). However, it is not Wâjib upon a father to give Sadaqah al-Fitr for his Bâligh or rich children.
The father can pay the Sadaqah al-Fitr on behalf of his adolescent children after getting their permission. However, he can also give it without asking for their consent if they are under his care. Because customarily, the father has the authority in the family.
A person cannot give his Fitrah to his poor wife, parents, grandparents, children, or grandchildren.
It is Makruh (disliked) to give the Fitrah after Eid Salâh. The recommended time is before Eid Salâh.